Welcome   
 

Hacker Beware   
 
 You have been warned!
We have caught 1661 shameful hackers.

NukeSentinel(tm) 2.6.01

Social Feeds   


Game leagues   

 


Weather   

Song Request Chat   

Schedule   


Contact Us   


The Tie Dye Store   


Main  •  FAQ  •  Search  •  User Groups  •  Profile  •  Members List  •  Private Messages
Arcade  •  Ranks  •  Rules  •  >  •  Statistics  •  Staff

Search for at
http://inked-radio.com Advanced Search


 
Recent Topics   Next 6 >>  
 Forum   Author   Replies   Last Post 
Распространенные ошибки смартфо Site ymuhyh 0 Sat Jul 21, 2018 8:32 pm
ymuhyh View latest post
Средство от грибка Site iwejel 0 Fri Jul 20, 2018 9:09 pm
iwejel View latest post
С выгодой приобрести себе роскош Site ocupuqiwe 0 Fri Jul 20, 2018 3:14 pm
ocupuqiwe View latest post
Светодиодные люстры Site ahesozy 0 Fri Jul 20, 2018 12:07 pm
ahesozy View latest post
ributor or the sports sho Site zhangsan520 0 Fri Jul 20, 2018 8:47 am
zhangsan520 View latest post
Safe, green and cheap Site zhangsan520 0 Fri Jul 20, 2018 6:50 am
zhangsan520 View latest post

THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view   Thank Post    http://inked-radio.com Forum Index -> Site
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
zhangsan520




Joined: Jul 10, 2018
Posts: 25

Reputation: 5.3
blank.png


Status: Offline
PostPosted: Thu Jul 12, 2018 1:08 am Post subject: No icon THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM Reply with quote

Cold fusion – The Salvage from the Energy Crisis? Published: 20.06.2008 | Author: Aquila | Category: Science
In 1989 the chemistry professors Stanley Pons and Martin Fleishman reported that they had achieved cold fusion in a palladium anode emerged in a solution of sodium deuteroxide in heavy water D2O. Due to a bad exactness of their report Thomas Meunier Jersey , only few other scientists managed to replicate their findings in the first place. The findings were then dismissed as due to misunderstandings and bad scientific practice, and the matter of cold fusion has since been regarded as a taboo area.


However, some scientists did manage to replicate the findings, and quietly an enormous amount of positive research findings based on experiments of a lot better quality have been published. The phenomenon is again becoming accepted as a legitimate field of research by steadily more scientists.


However, what is really going on is not well understood. Heat production Thiago Silva Jersey , detected radiation and detected fusion products suggest that some kind of nuclear reaction or fusion takes place, but the reactions do not show the amount of radiation and the ratios of products that known hot fusion reactions do. Therefore other names of the phenomenon are often used, like Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or (LENR) or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR).


WHAT IS FUSION


By fusion two or more atomic nuclei, protons or neutrons fuse together to form a new atomic nucleus. The new nucleus is held together by the strong forces between the heavy particles, protons and neutrons. These forces are so strong that they win over the repulsing electromagnetic forces between protons.


However Thiago Motta Jersey , the strong forces only work at a short distance. Therefore the nucleons (neutrons and protons) must be brought very close together. This is difficult because of the repulsing electromagnetic forces between the protons. In traditional fusion this is achieved by very high pressure and temperature in the fusing material.


The mass of a helium nucleus (consisting of two protons and two neutrons) and other light nuclei are less than the mass of the same number of free protons, neutrons or deuterium nuclei. A deuterium nucleus consists of one proton and one neutron. Heavy water contains deuterium instead of ordinary hydrogen and is therefore designed D2O. When fusion takes place, this mass difference cannot be lost. It is converted to kinetic energy and gamma radiation. Therefore fusion of protons, neutrons or kernels of the very lightest elements into heavier elements is a very potent energy source.


One has not been able to make a controlled fusion by high temperature and pressure that yields more energy than the input energy yet. The only practical way one has managed to exploit the energy from warm fusion is the hydrogen bomb.


THE PROCESS BEHIND COLD FUSION


There is no fully developed model for cold fusion yet. The hypothesis behind the phenomenon is however very simple: All particles behave according to quantum mechanical laws. These laws say that the coordinates and energy state of a particle at one point in time determine the probability of finding a particle at a place with some given coordinates at another point of time, but the exact place cannot be predicted. Actually Serge Aurier Jersey , a particle can be found anywhere at that other time point, but all places do not have the same probability. Some places are very probable, and others are very improbable. Because of this, even a particle that is not in any net motion nevertheless will shift place randomly to some extend, usually very little Romain Habran Jersey , but sometimes more.


By bringing particles and nuclei very near each other by using some force, this will happen: The quantum mechanical behaviour will as always make the particles shift their position more or less all the time, and sometimes they get near enough to let the strong nuclear forces to take action and make them fuse.


According to standard understanding of the standard theory, this cannot happen in such a degree to be detected. Still it does. Either the standard theory is not complete, or one has not learned to use the theory in a right fashion. The mathematical apparatus of the theory is so complicated Roli Pereira de Sa Jersey , that it is impossible to predict what can happen and what cannot happen with a short glance at the equations.


Cold fusion differs in many aspects from warm fusion. It is difficult to produce warm fusion of other things than one deuterium and one tritium kernel. By cold fusion, two deuterium kernels easily fuse to helium, and even fusion involving hydrogen kernels (free protons) have been reported.


Output of neutrons (n), tritium (T), protons (p) and gamma radiation has been reported by cold fusion Remy Descamps Jersey , but not in the amount predicted by standard understanding. These are the reactions that standard understanding predicts when two deuterium kernels fuse: D聽+聽D聽–>聽3He聽+聽n, D聽+聽D聽–>聽T聽+聽p, D聽+聽D聽–>聽4He聽+聽gamma photon.


THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM


The original experiment exerted by Pons and Fleischmann consisted of these elements: A palladium cathode, a nickel anode and a solution of sodium deuteride NaOD (20%) in heavy water D2O. Sodium deuteride is sodium hydroxide with heavy hydrogen (deuterium) in the OH- ion, and therefore designed as OD-.


When electricity was applied to this electrolytic system Presnel Kimpembe Jersey , deuterium atoms were produced at the cathode, and oxygen at the anode. The deuterium atoms went into the palladium crystal lattice in great extend before combining to D2.


Excess heat was then produced in the electrolytic cell, apart from the electrolytic heat. Helium, tritium and neutrons were also produced, but the latter two products not in the amounts that would have been produced in a hot fusion. Therefore the fusion reactions in the system are different" A.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Display posts from previous:
Post new topic  Reply to topic   printer-friendly view   Thank Post http://inked-radio.com Forum Index ->  Site Time synchronized with your computer time
Page 1 of 1


 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum
You cannot attach files in this forum
You cannot download files in this forum

Related topics
 Topics   Replies   Author   Views   Last Post 
No new posts Undeniably one of the best Nike retros of the year 0 leejames618 455 Sat Jul 08, 2017 2:26 am
leejames618 View latest post
No new posts Children 's Bedding Tricks That No One More Knows About Subj 0 ekusyduwi 541 Wed Jun 21, 2017 11:13 am
ekusyduwi View latest post
No new posts The Air Max JUST ONE Master can be to consume at earliest 0 RachelRTurley 518 Mon Jun 12, 2017 3:42 am
RachelRTurley View latest post
No new posts nike roshe one nederland sale 0 xiaoming 542 Fri May 19, 2017 12:43 am
xiaoming View latest post
No new posts can almost create his or her from day one. 0 hgyhdfa 2672 Sat Jan 21, 2017 3:11 am
hgyhdfa View latest post
 




Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2007 phpBB Group

Theme by Twisted Chaos Designs© 2007 Twisted Chaos Designs

Nuke-Evolution Conversion by Nuke-EvolutionThemes.com

Spambot Killer
Site Map

[News Feed] [Forums Feed] [Downloads Feed] [Web Links Feed] Powered by HTML Purifier[Validate robots.txt]


PHP-Nuke Copyright © 2006 by Francisco Burzi.
All logos, trademarks and posts in this site are property of their respective owners, all the rest © 2006 by the site owner.
Powered by Nuke Evolution 2.0.7 - Nuke-Evolution Xtreme 2.0 Edition.

[ Page Generation: 0.20 Seconds | Memory Usage: 8.5 MB | DB Queries: 59 ]

Do Not Click